Thursday, March 09, 2006

Unix/Solaris: One-Liners

Unix/Solaris: One-Liners

Listed here are a bunch of unix commands.

--> change file date stamp
touch –t 199906042020 filename

--> move partitions
ufsdump 0f - /dev/rdsk/c0t0s0s0 | (cd /home; ufsrestore xv -)

--> lay down file system with 1% minfree and inode density
newfs –m1 –i81920 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0

--> check file system
fsck /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0

Q: starting sybase
login as sybase, run: ./install/RUN_SYBASE

Q: logging in as sybase sa
isql -U sa <password>

--> dump a partition and pipe to gzip. Watch > 2GB limit
ufsdump 0f - /home | gzip - >/tmp/home.dump.gz

--> rewind offline a tape
mt –f /dev/rmt/0 rewoffl

--> only allow 300MB for user /tmp access
swap - /tmp tmpfs – yes SIZE=300M

--> verbose interactive restore
ufsrestore –ivf /dev/rmt/1

--> remove a printer from a class
lpadmin –p level5-line1 –r level5-line

--> truss a command
truss –-f -–o /tmp/log.txt

--> [DB] feed a script into sybase
isql –Urfe_xfer -Uuser -Ppassword -isqlscript >>blah.txt

--> make a printer class
lpadmin –p level5-line1 –c level5-line

--> remove level2-line2 printer from printer class level2-line
lpadmin -p level2-line2 -r level2-line

--> add level2-line3 to printer class
lpadmin -c level2-line -p level2-line3

--> [DB] how to change your password in isql
sp_password password, password-new

--> move a directory
tar cf - ./games | (cd /tmp; tar xvBpf - )

--> [DB] run a sybase script, and dump to file

--> move a directory to another server
tar cf - ./games | rsh brucey cd /tmp\; tar xvBpf -

--> check for SUID SGID files
ncheck -F ufs -s /dev/dsk/c3t0d0s

-- remove core files
find / -name core –exec rm –f {} \; -o –fstype nfs –prune

--> rebuild man pages
catman –w –M man-page-directory or /usr/lib/makewhatis

--> vi command to show special characters
: set list

--> adding an account
useradd -u 120 –g dls -d /apps/dls –s /bin/ksh -c "comment" -m dls

--> create a mysql database
mysqladmin -uroot -ppassword create ebs

--> starting mysql database
/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql.server start

--> Invoke CPAN module install
perl –MCPAN –eshell

--> dump to zip
ufsdump 0f - /filesystem | /opt/local/gzip - > /tmp/dump.gz

--> shutdown mysql databse
/usr/local/bin/mysqladmin shutdown -ppassword
/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql.server stop

--> test the loading of a module
PERL_DL_DEBUG=255 perl -e 'use CGI;'

--> shows open files
fuser –cu /

--> Writing a Daemon:
1. edit /etc/services
add service and port.
2. edit /etc/inetd.conf
add in: edwardd stream tcp nowait root /bin/sh /bin/sh
3. kill –HUP inetd.conf

--> how to mount a file system
mount /dev/dsk/c3t0d0s4 /apps/data/easysoft/DEVT

--> look at sar log
sar –f /var/adm/sa/sa24

--> write file checksums and size
cksum filename

--> show storage array info
ssaadm display /dev/rdsk/c1t5d2s0
--> show all disks on device d
luxadm display d

--> examine for a specific OS finerprint
nmap –sS -p 80 -O -v <host> = examine OS

--> show print jobs
/usr/ucb/lpq –Plevel6

--> Scan for known ports. log it. do OS scan.
nmap –sS -F -o foo.log -v -O =

--> show status of printer
/usr/ucb/lpc status

--> make a swap file:
dd if=/dev/zero of=swapfile bs=1024 count=65535
mkswap ./swapfile
chmod 600 ./swapfile
swapon ./swapfile

--> show open files for process
lsof –p PID

--> show open files for all TCP connections
lsof –iTCP

--> show open files for internet address
lsof -iTCP@

--> as above
lsof -i @

--> examine tcp ports
lsof -iTCP@sarah:1-50000

--> show open files for user.
lsof –u username

--> show processes that has the file in use.
lsof /apps/cms/ECMS-Server

--> show open files and retry every 5 seconds
lsof –p process-id –r 5

--> mount a floppy
mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

--> check here for debugging processes and errno.h for errors

--> scp a whole directory, preserve mods
sudo scp -prv devel webadmin@

--> take processor 2 and 3 offline.
psradm -f 2 3
--> show processor stats verbose.
psrinfo –v

--> how to skip grant tables in mysql (over ride security)
/usr/local/libexec/mysqld -Sg

--> how to feed in an SQL program
mysql <create_table.sql

--> rm all files in directories
find . -type f -exec rm {} \;

--> dump packets to a capture file
sudo snoop –o /tmp/tcp.txt cp

--> backup one liner
tar cvf - /home/ebs | gzip - > ebs.tar.gz

--> Look at selected packets in capture file
sudo snoop -i /tmp/tcp.txt

--> unzip and pipe to tar
gzip -dc <kmysql-1_1_6_tar.gz | tar xvf -

--> watch packets from two servers.
snoop sarah brucey

--> enable ip masquerading
/sbin/ipchains -P forward DENY
/sbin/ipchains -A forward -s -j MASQ

-> view su log file
cat /var/adm/sulog

--> establish a default router or gateway.
echo "" > /etc/defaultrouter
echo " sagacity" >> /etc/hosts
change /etc/nsswitch.conf so that hosts has files, dns
edit resolv.conf put in
search .

--> turn off automounter on /export/home.
vi /etc/auto_master, comment out /export/home

--> configuration file for sudoers

--> building ssh-1.2.27 on x86Solaris2.6 needed a few things:
/usr/openwin/bin in path
/usr/xpg4/bin in path
declare AR="/usr/xpg4/bin/ar"
declare NM_PATH="/usr/xpg4/bin/nm"

--> snoop network packets and get size and time stamp entries.
snoop -S -ta empa1

--> access perl CPAN
perl -MCPAN -e shell
install DBI

--> search for no password entries and lock all accounts.
for i in `passwd –sa | grep NP | awk '{print $1'`
echo "locking $i"
passwd –l $i

--> delete from a tar
tar --delete -f fs_backup_Sunday.tar home/ebs/tmp

--> Example on backing up files to tape. Must specify non rewinding,
else you will over-write the files.
for file in `ls`
echo "sending $file to tape..."
echo `date`
tar cvpf /dev/rmt/0n $file

--> making/adding a partition.
1. use fdisk to make a parition.
2. mkfs -t ext2 -c /dev/hda11
3. mount -t ext2 /dev/hda11 /opt2
4. update /etc/fstab

--> rebuild the windex file
catman –w –M /usr/share/man

--> execute tar on remote host sarah and send tarball to standard output,
which becomes standard input for tar xvf – and the file gets dumped locally,
in this case on crawl. you have to cd to dir before tar or else you
will include path in tar
ssh maggie "cd $DIRNAME; tar cvf - $BASENAME" | (cd $TPATH; tar xvf - )

--> dump a remote filesystem and send it to local tape drive.
ssh -–x $fw /usr/sbin/ufsdump 0cf - $fs | dd obs=63k of=$TAPE

--> encrypt filename 1 and output to 1.crypt file
crypt < 1 > 1.crypt ; rm 1

--> decrypt filename 1.crypt and stdout to screen
crypt < 1.crypt

--> send a file to tape
tar cvpf /dev/rmt/0 filename

--> quicker way to search and replace in vi
: %s/existing/new/g

--> shows where and which shared library files an application uses.
ldd binary

--> shell script stuff:
# repeat a command 100 times
while [ $x -gt 0 ]

--> Something very important to remember about partitions
It is important to note that Cylinder 0 contains the disklabel, which
contains the partition table. A normal filesystem can be placed
starting at Cylinder 0, since it will not touch the disklabel.
If you lay down a raw device, for a database, over Cylinder 0,
then you will completely lose all your partitions. You will then
have to restore the disklabel, and backup from tape if you happen to do this.

--> move a partition
find . |cpio -pdm /apps

--> cron structure
min hour day-of-month month weekday command

--> PatchDiag Tool. Get patches from:
patchdiag.xref is available at:
/opt/local/bin/patchdiag -x /opt/local/lib/patchdiag.xref > patchdiag.`uname -n`

--> command showing system parameters

--> Get Ambient Temperature of Server
/usr/platform/SUNW,Ultra-4/sbin/prtdiag -v

--> good ps formatting showing percent cpu first.
ps -edf -o pcpu,pid,user,arg

--> full details on ps
/usr/bin/ps –A -o user,pid,pcpu,pmem,vsz,rss,tty,s,stime,time,args

--> chown the hidden files as well.
find . -print -exec chown -R sextone:staff {} \;

--> The nsradmin command is a command-line based administrative
program for the NetWorker system. Normally nsradmin monitors
and modifies NetWorker resources over the network.

--> Spray a server
-c number of packets
-d delay in microseconds
-l pakcet size in bytes
/usr/sbin/spray -c 1 –d 20 -l 4096 maggie

--> Turn on bold.
bold=`tput smso`
offbold=`tput rmso`
echo "${bold}You must be the \"root\" user to run this script.${offbold}"

--> good way to send a dir to tape
tar cf /dev/rmt/0n directory

--> example of bringing up an interface
ifconfig hme0:1 inet up

--> show all connections
netstat –f inet

--> rpcinfo makes an RPC call to an RPC server and reports
what it finds.
rpcinfo -b 390109 2 | sort -u

--> rewind a tape fast
< /dev/rmt/0

--> show loaded modules

--> find world readable files and dirs
find / -type d –perm -2 –print
find . -type f –perm -2 -print

--> adding in a boot alias, eg:
boot sarahroot1 –s
nvalias sarahroot1 /sbus@1f,0/sunw,fas@e,8800000/sd@9,0:a

--> clever way to archive
tar cvf - `find . –print` >/tmp/dumpfile.tar
tar xvf - </tmp/dumpfile.tar

--> tee to a file
echo "Start Date/Time: `date`" | tee -a $LOG_FILE

--> read a snoop file
snoop -i anz-telnet.snoop

--> write a snoop log (this will count the number of connections,
which is pretty neat).
snoop –osnoop.log sarah

--> set default run level. 5 for gui.

--> show all exported filesystems
showmount -e crawl

--> shows all configurable variables for tcp interface.
sudo ndd -get /dev/tcp
- ?
sudo ndd -get /dev/tcp tcp_conn_req_max_q
ndd /dev/arp \?
ndd /dev/ip \?
ndd /dev/tcp \?
ndd /dev/udp \?
ndd /dev/icmp \?

--> set sticky bit on group files, only the owner can change the mode.
--> the +l is mandatory file and record locking while a program
--> is accessing that file.
chmod g+s,+l file

--> print duplex landscape 4 qudrant printing
mpage –t –l –4

--> install a patch
installpatch .

--> check to see if a patch has been installed
showrev –p |grep package name

--> unzip, untar in a /tmp directory
zcat 104708-16.tar.gz | ( cd /tmp; sudo tar xvf - )

--> check out revision level on ssa controller
/usr/sbin/ssaadm display controller

--> unzip and untar a file without having to create an intermediate tar file
sudo gzip -dc /tmp/270599/post-EOD.tar.gz |tar xvf -

--> selectively extract from a tar archive
tar xvf /tmp/iona.tar ./iona/.sh_history

--> send a bunch of files to tape
tar cf /tmp/rules.tar ruleb* objects.C *.W

--> examine section 5 of man
man -s 5 signal

--> shows signals and definitions of structures, eg sigaction

--> location of the limits file on solaris

--> send an attachment via email from command prompt
uuencode file.tar.gz file.tar.gz | mailx –s "backup" root@crawl

--> zero a file
cat /dev/null > isam.log

--> good way to restore from cdrom a binary file
zcat < /cdrom/cdrom0/Solaris_2.6/Product/SUNWcsu/install/reloc.cpio.Z |
cpio –idm usr/lib/fs/ufs/ufsrestore

--> running su as a user then ssh
su - dls-PROD -c "/opt/local/bin/ssh drp-stagger \"cd /tmp; /bin/ls\" "

--> verify a newfs format
sudo newfs –Nv /dev/md/dsk/d96

--> making lost_found. must be 8192 bytes in size.
mkdir ./lost+found;chown root ./lost+found; chgrp root ./lost+found
;chmod 700 ./lost+found'; cd ./lost+found
nofiles=0 ; while [ "$nofiles" -le 650 ] ; do ; /usr/ucb/touch
$nofiles ; nofiles=`expr $nofiles + 1` ; done

--> execute lynx
lynx -cfg /usr/lib/lynx.cfg

--> sed search example
sed '/Sep\ 25/!d; /castill/!d' /var/log/syslo

-->should only be used at the EEPROM
boot –r
--> should be used at single user mode
reboot -- -r
--> should be used in multiuser mode
touch /reconfigure

--> performing a remote dump

|cpio -oc |gzip -c
|ssh brucey -l chaup dd obs=18k of=/dev/rmt/0n

- to extract -
cd /ssa/emphasys/sybase/dump
dd ibs=18k if=<TAPE DEVICE>|gunzip -c |cpio –idc

--> boot block located here.
/usr/platform/`uname –i`/lib/fs/ufs

--> getting a server on the network
add hosts entry for IP address
clear configs: ifconfig pe0 unplumb
ifconfig pe0 netmask up
route add default 1
verify the routing table: netstat –rn
add resolv.conf entry: domain nameserver
edit /etc/nsswitch.conf change hosts to files, dns

lesson here is to unplumb interface, and let ifconfig setup the routing.
if you specify an ip address and a netmask it will manage
the routing and the broadcasting.

--> find all, files associated with PID 22240
/usr/proc/bin/pfiles 22240
find file based on inode
find –i number
"ncheck –i number

--> good redirection example
./a.out </etc/termcap | (sleep 10; cat) >trash

--> synchronize files from one server to another. This is useful for
synchronizing database dump files, binary files, etc. This is
definitely a powerful tool.

rsync -avz -e ssh --rsync-path="/usr/local/bin/rsync" `pwd`

--> Example Awk Script

# run with awk -f/tmp/1.awk /etc/group

BEGIN { FS = ":" }
{ print $1 | "sort" }
{ nlines++ }
END { print nlines }

--> awk example.
awk '/#/ {print "Got a comment"}' /etc/hosts

--> delete every 2nd field in file
awk '{$2= ""; print}' datafile >

--> awk average/standard deviation program

x1 += $1
x2 += $1*$1

x1 = x1/NR
x2 = x2/NR
sigma = sqrt(x2 - x1*x1)
if (NR > 1) std_err = sigma/sqrt(NR - 1)
print "Number of points = " NR
print "Mean = " x1
print "Standard Deviation = " sigma
print "Standard Error = " std_err


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